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Make/Model Information:

  • Brand:   Denso
  • Models included:
    • Denso Common Rail HP0
    • Denso Common Rail HP2
    • Denso Common Rail HP3
    • Denso Common Rail HP4

File Information:

  • Type:   Factory Service Manual (FSM)
  • Language:   English (EN)
  • Number of pages:   88
  • File size:  ∼ 4.60 MB
  • File Format:   PDF only
  • SME Watermarks:   None
  • Password lock:   No
  • Edit/copy/modify:   Yes
  • SKU:   ENDE-0005

NOTE:  This list was created by program script and may not accurately represent the text from the source pages.   For full preview please click on 'Download sample':

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Common Rail System
Operation
00400076E
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. GENERAL DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1-1. CHANGES IN ENVIRONMENT SURROUNDING THE DIESEL ENGINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1-2. DEMANDS ON FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1-3. TYPES OF AND TRANSITIONS IN ECD (ELECTRONICALLY CONTROLLED DIESEL) SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1-4. COMMON RAIL SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1-5. COMMON RAIL SYSTEM AND SUPPLY PUMP TRANSITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1-6. INJECTOR TRANSITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1-7. COMMON RAIL SYSTEM CONFIGURATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2. COMMON RAIL SYSTEM OUTLINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2-1. GENERAL DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3. DESCRIPTION OF MAIN COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3-1. SUPPLY PUMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3-2. RAIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3-3. INJECTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
4. DESCRIPTION OF CONTROL SYSTEM COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
4-1. ENGINE CONTROL SYSTEM DIAGRAM (REFERENCE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
4-2. ENGINE ECU (ELECTRONIC CONTROL UNIT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
4-3. EDU (ELECTRONIC DRIVING UNIT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
4-4. VARIOUS SENSORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
5. CONTROL SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
5-1. FUEL INJECTION CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
5-2. E-EGR SYSTEM (ELECTRIC-EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
5-3. ELECTRONICALLY CONTROLLED THROTTLE (NOT MADE BY DENSO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
5-4. EXHAUST GAS CONTROL SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
5-5. DPF SYSTEM (DIESEL PARTICULATE FILTER) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
5-6. DPNR SYSTEM (DIESEL PARTICULATE NOx REDUCTION) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
6. DIAGNOSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
6-1. OUTLINE OF THE DIAGNOSTIC FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
6-2. DIAGNOSIS INSPECTION USING DST-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
6-3. DIAGNOSIS INSPECTION USING THE MALFUNCTION INDICATOR LIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
6-4. THROTTLE BODY FUNCTION INSPECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
7. END OF VOLUME MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
7-1. PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
7-2. COMMON RAIL TYPE FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT HISTORY AND THE WORLD'S
MANUFACTURERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
7-3. HIGHER INJECTION PRESSURE, OPTIMIZED INJECTION RATES, HIGHER INJECTION TIMING CONTROL
PRECISION, HIGHER INJECTION QUANTITY CONTROL PRECISION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
7-4. IMAGE OF COMBUSTION CHAMBER INTERIOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
1. GENERAL DESCRIPTION
1-1. CHANGES IN ENVIRONMENT SURROUNDING THE DIESEL ENGINE
Throughout the world, there is a desperate need to improve vehicle fuel economy for the purposes of preventing global
warming and reducing exhaust gas emissions that affect human health. Diesel engine vehicles are highly acclaimed in
Europe, due to the good fuel economy that diesel fuel offers. On the other hand, the "nitrogen oxides (NOx)" and "par-
ticulate matter (PM)" contained in the exhaust gas must be greatly reduced to meet exhaust gas regulations, and tech-
nology is being actively developed for the sake of improved fuel economy and reduced exhaust gases.
< NOTE >
For more information on particulate matter (PM), see the material at the end of this document.
A. Demands on Diesel Vehicles
Reduce exhaust gases (NOx, PM, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and smoke).
Improve fuel economy.
Reduce noise.
Improve power output and driving performance.
B. Transition of Exhaust Gas Regulations (Example of Large Vehicle Diesel Regulations)
The EURO IV regulations take effect in Europe from 2005, and the 2004 MY regulations take effect in North America
from 2004. Furthermore, the EURO V regulations will take effect in Europe from 2008, and the 2007 MY regulations will
take effect in North America from 2007. Through these measures, PM and NOx emissions are being reduced in stages.
1-2. DEMANDS ON FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM
In order to address the various demands that are imposed on diesel vehicles, the fuel injection system (including the
injection pump and nozzles) plays a significant role because it directly affects the performance of the engine and the
vehicle. Some of the demands are: higher injection pressure, optimized injection rate, higher precision of injection timing
control, and higher precision of injection quantity control.
< NOTE >
For further information on higher injection pressure, optimized injection rate, higher precision of injection timing control,
and higher precision of injection quantity control, see the material at the end of this document.
Q000989E
2005 20082004 2007
1998 MY 2004 MY 2007 MY
EURO EURO EURO EURO EURO EURO
1998 MY 2004 MY 2007 MY
Europe Europe
North America
America
2005 20082004 2007
1-3. TYPES OF AND TRANSITIONS IN ECD (ELECTRONICALLY CONTROLLED DIESEL) SYSTEMS
ECD systems include the ECD-V series (V3, V4, and V5) which implements electronic control through distributed pumps
(VE type pumps), and common rail systems made up of a supply pump, rail, and injectors. Types are the ECD-V3 and
V5 for passenger cars and RVs, the ECD-V4 that can also support small trucks, common rail systems for trucks, and
common rail systems for passenger cars and RVs. In addition, there are 2nd-generation common rail systems that sup-
port both large vehicle and passenger car applications. The chart below shows the characteristics of these systems.
ECD-V1
ECD-V3
ECD-V5
'85 '90 '95 '00
Large Vehicle Common Rail
Passenger Car Common Rail
Common Rail System
Maximum Injection Pressure 180 MPa
Uses pilot injection to reduce the
engine combustion noise
Fuel raised to high pressure by the
supply pump is temporarily
accumulated in the rail, then injected
after the injector is energized.
System
Types and
Transitions
Maximum Injection Pressure 130 MPa
Inner Cam Pumping Mechanism
Maximum Injection Pressure
100 MPa
Uses pilot injection to reduce the
engine combustion noise.
Supply Pump Injector Rail
The world's first SPV (electromagnetic
spill valve system) is used for fuel
injection quantity control, so the
quantity injected by each cylinder can
be controlled.
Maximum Injection Pressure 60 MPa
Q000750E
ECD-V3 ECD-V4 ECD-V5


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